Malignant tumors divide uncontrollably and can invade nearby tissues. This invasion is an essential part of metastasis - the spread of cancer cells from the primary site to a secondary location in the body to form a secondary or metastatic tumor. Metastasis is a multistep process influenced by the microenvironment, growth factors, hormones, genetics, and epigenetics.
The progression from localized primary tumor to metastatic disease greatly reduces cancer survival rate, with only one in five patients surviving beyond five years. Therefore, understanding the formation and spread of metastatic cancer is essential for improving patient outcomes.
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